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Valgrind 检测linux上c++内存泄露

上一篇 / 下一篇  2008-07-15 21:51:19 / 个人分类:搜索引擎测试

Linux c++上常用内存泄露检测工具有valgrind, Rational purifyValgrind免费。Valgrind可以在32位或64PowerPC/Linux内核上工作

Valgrind工具包包含多个工具,如Memcheck,Cachegrind,Helgrind, CallgrindMassif。下面分别介绍个工具的作用:

Memcheck工具主要检查下面的程序错误:

  • 使用未初始化的内存(Use of uninitialised memory)
  • 使用已经释放了的内存(Reading/writing memory after it has been free’d)
  • 使用超过malloc分配的内存空间(Reading/writing off the end of malloc’d blocks)
  • 对堆栈的非法访问(Reading/writing inappropriate areas on the stack)
  • 申请的空间是否有释放(Memory leaks – where pointers to malloc’d blocks are lost forever)
  • malloc/free/new/delete申请和释放内存的匹配(Mismatched use of malloc/new/new [] vs free/delete/delete [])
  • srcdst的重叠(Overlapping src and dst pointers in memcpy() and related functions)

Valgrind不检查静态分配数组的使用情况。

Valgrind占用了更多的内存--可达两倍于你程序的正常使用量。如果你用Valgrind来检测使用大量内存的程序就会遇到问题,它可能会用很长的时间来运行测试

1.1.     下载安装

 http://www.valgrind.org

安装

./configure;make;make install

1.2.     编译程序

被检测程序加入–g -fno-inline编译选项保留调试信息。

 

1.3.     内存泄露检测

$  valgrind --leak-check=full --show-reachable=yes --trace-children=yes      ./iquery -f ../conf/se.conf_forum   -t ~/eragon/forum_thread_data/f.log  -NT -cache 0

其中--leak-check=full指的是完全检查内存泄漏,--show-reachable=yes是显示内存泄漏的地点,--trace-children=yes是跟入子进程。当程序正常退出的时候valgrind自然会输出内存泄漏的信息。

 

==4591==

==4591== Thread 1:

==4591== Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialised value(s)

==4591==   at 0x805687B: main (TestQuery.cpp:478)

==4591==

==4591== Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialised value(s)

==4591==   at 0x8056894: main (TestQuery.cpp:478)

==4591==

==4591== Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialised value(s)

==4591==   at 0x80568AD: main (TestQuery.cpp:478)

==4591== Warning: set address range perms: large range 215212032 (noaccess)

==4591== Warning: set address range perms: large range 125145088 (noaccess)

==4591==

==4591==ERROR SUMMARY: 6 errors from 4 contexts (suppressed: 18 from 1)

==4591== malloc/free: in use at exit: 496 bytes in 2 blocks.

==4591== malloc/free: 928,605 allocs, 928,603 frees, 2,514,165,074 bytes allocated.

==4591== For counts of detected errors, rerun with: -v

==4591== searching for pointers to 2 not-freed blocks.

==4591== checked 10,260,564 bytes.

==4591==

==4591==

==4591== 144 bytes in 1 blocks are possibly lost in loss record 1 of 2

==4591==   at 0x4005906: calloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:279)

==4591==   by 0xB3671A: _dl_allocate_tls (in /lib/ld-2.3.4.so)

==4591==   by 0xD9491E: pthread_create@@GLIBC_2.1 (in /lib/tls/libpthread-2.3.4.so)

==4591==   by 0x8200C66: public_unit::CThread::start(void*) (Thread.cpp:25)

==4591==   by 0x80567C3: main (TestQuery.cpp:473)

==4591==

==4591==

==4591== 352 bytes in 1 blocks are still reachable in loss record 2 of 2

==4591==   at 0x40044F6: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:149)

==4591==   by 0xB9905E: __fopen_internal (in /lib/tls/libc-2.3.4.so)

==4591==   by 0xB9911C: fopen@@GLIBC_2.1 (in /lib/tls/libc-2.3.4.so)

==4591==   by 0x805940C: CSearchThread::run(void*) (TestQuery.cpp:363)

==4591==   by 0x8200D09: public_unit::CThread::thread_func(void*) (Thread.cpp:44)

==4591==   by 0xD94370: start_thread (in /lib/tls/libpthread-2.3.4.so)

==4591==   by 0xC0DFFD: clone (in /lib/tls/libc-2.3.4.so)

==4591==

==4591== LEAK SUMMARY:

==4591==   definitely lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks.

==4591==     possibly lost: 144 bytes in 1 blocks.

==4591==   still reachable: 352 bytes in 1 blocks.

==4591==        suppressed: 0 bytes in 0 blocks.

 

关键字在:ERROR SUMMARY, LEAK SUMMARY

*                      "definitely lost" means your program is leaking memory -- fix it!

*                      "possibly lost" means your program is probably leaking memory, unless you're doing funny things with pointers.

*                      "still reachable" means your program is probably ok -- it didn't free some memory it could have. This is quite common and often reasonable. Don't use--show-reachable=yesif you don't want to see these reports.

*                      "suppressed" means that a leak error has been suppressed. There are some suppressions in the default suppression files. You can ignore suppressed errors

 

另外一种方式,激活加载调试器

gcc -Wall  -g -pg  -o get_XMLDOC get_XMLDOC.c

$ valgrind  --db-attach=yes --leak-check=full      ./get_XMLDOC  ~/eragon/data/offer_gb.xml 1.xml 10

==8956== Memcheck, a memory error detector.

==8956== Copyright (C) 2002-2006, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.

==8956== Using LibVEX rev 1606, a library for dynamic binary translation.

==8956== Copyright (C) 2004-2006, and GNU GPL'd, by OpenWorks LLP.

==8956== Using valgrind-3.2.0, a dynamic binary instrumentation framework.

==8956== Copyright (C) 2000-2006, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.

==8956== For more details, rerun with: -v

==8956==

==8956==

==8956== ---- Attach to debugger ? --- [Return/N/n/Y/y/C/c] ----

==8956==

==8956== ERROR SUMMARY: 0 errors from 0 contexts (suppressed: 12 from 1)

==8956== malloc/free: in use at exit: 1,953 bytes in 2 blocks.

==8956== malloc/free: 4 allocs, 2 frees, 2,657 bytes allocated.

==8956== For counts of detected errors, rerun with: -v

==8956== searching for pointers to 2 not-freed blocks.

==8956== checked 52,840 bytes.

==8956==

==8956== 1 bytes in 1 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 1 of 2

==8956==   at 0x40044F6: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:149)

==8956==   by 0x80488C0: main (get_XMLDOC.c:38)

==8956==

==8956== LEAK SUMMARY:

==8956==   definitely lost: 1 bytes in 1 blocks.

==8956==     possibly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks.

==8956==   still reachable: 1,952 bytes in 1 blocks.

==8956==        suppressed: 0 bytes in 0 blocks.

==8956== Reachable blocks (those to which a pointer was found) are not shown.

==8956== To see them, rerun with: --show-reachable=yes

Profiling timer expired

 

1.4.     检查性能瓶颈

$valgrind --tool=callgrind ./iquery -f ../conf/se.conf_forum  -s "forum_thread?q=mp4"

==4607==

==4607== Events   : Ir

==4607== Collected : 251772397

==4607==

==4607== I  refs:     251,772,397

 

4607为进程号。

$ ll

-rw------- 1 search search  712159 7 9 22:31 callgrind.out.4607

$ callgrind_annotate --auto=yes callgrind.out.4607

WARNING: header line 2 malformed, ignoring

   line: 'creator: callgrind-3.2.0'

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I1 cache:

D1 cache:

L2 cache:

Timerange: Basic block 0 - 46942078

Trigger: Program termination

Profiled target: ./iquery -f ../conf/se.conf_forum -s forum_thread?q=mp4 (PID 4607, part 1)

Events recorded: Ir

Events shown:    Ir

Event sort order: Ir

Thresholds:      99

Include dirs:    

User annotated:  

Auto-annotation: on

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        Ir

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

251,772,397 PROGRAM TOTALS

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Ir file:function

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

54,769,656 ???:__mcount_internal [/lib/tls/libc-2.3.4.so]

26,418,450 GBKNormalString.cpp:dictionary::CGBKNormalString::initNormalChars() [/home/search/eragon_yb/bin/iquery]

22,820,690 ???:mcount [/lib/tls/libc-2.3.4.so]

11,559,615 GBKNormalString.cpp:dictionary::CGBKNormalString::initCharKinds() [/home/search/eragon_yb/bin/iquery]

 

更多说明参考:

http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/cn/linux/l-pow-debug/

 

1.5.     cache测试

参考:http://www.wangcong.org/articles/valgrind.html

[search@alitest146 /home/search/eragon_yb/bin]

$ valgrind  --tool=cachegrind ./iquery  -f ../conf/se.conf_forum  -s "forum_thread?q=mp3"

==8742==

==8742== I  refs:     267,968,791

==8742== I1 misses:        98,845

==8742== L2i misses:        13,382

==8742== I1 miss rate:       0.03%

==8742== L2i miss rate:       0.00%

==8742==

==8742== D  refs:     182,288,669 (120,222,370 rd + 62,066,299 wr)

==8742== D1 misses:       962,816 (   537,889 rd +   424,927 wr)

==8742== L2d misses:       707,813 (   340,925 rd +   366,888 wr)

==8742== D1 miss rate:        0.5% (       0.4%  +       0.6% )

==8742== L2d miss rate:        0.3% (       0.2%  +       0.5% )

==8742==

==8742== L2 refs:        1,061,661 (   636,734 rd +   424,927 wr)

==8742== L2 misses:        721,195 (   354,307 rd +   366,888 wr)

==8742== L2 miss rate:         0.1% (       0.0%  +       0.5% )

 

上面的是指令缓存,I1L2i缓存,的访问信息,包括总的访问次数,丢失次数,丢失率。

中间的是数据缓存,D1L2d缓存,的访问的相关信息,下面的L2缓存单独的信息。Cachegrind也生成一个文件,名为cachegrind.out.pid可以通过cg_annotate来读取。输出是一个更详细的列表。Massif的使用和cachegrind类似,不过它也会生成一个名为massif.pid.psPostscrīpt文件,里面只有一幅描述堆栈使用状况的彩图。

 

[search@alitest146 /home/search/Isearchv3_scrīpt_yb/tools]

$ ll cachegrind.out*

-rw------- 1 search search 7283 Jul 11 11:21 cachegrind.out. 8633

 

$ cg_annotate --8633 --auto=yes ~/isearch_yb/src/test/core/TestQuery.cpp                                                      

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I1 cache:        16384 B, 32 B, 8-way associative

D1 cache:        16384 B, 64 B, 8-way associative

L2 cache:        2097152 B, 64 B, 8-way associative

Command:         ./iquery -f ../conf/se.conf_forum -s forum_thread?q=mp3

Data file:       cachegrind.out.8633

Events recorded: Ir I1mr I2mr Dr D1mr D2mr Dw D1mw D2mw

Events shown:    Ir I1mr I2mr Dr D1mr D2mr Dw D1mw D2mw

Event sort order: Ir I1mr I2mr Dr D1mr D2mr Dw D1mw D2mw

Thresholds:      99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TAG: valgrind memcheck cachegrind 内存泄露 purify 搜索引擎测试

 

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