Python3简易接口自动化测试框架设计与实现(中)

发表于:2019-5-14 10:13  作者:秦无殇   来源:博客园

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  目录
  7、Excel数据读取
  7.1、读取配置文件
  7.1、编写Excel操作类
  8、用例组装
  9、用例运行结果校验
  10、运行用例
  11 、小结
  7、Excel数据读取
  用例是放在Excel中的,用xlrd来读取数据,写数据需要用到xluntils,先安装:
  pip install xlrd
  pip install xluntils
  7.1、读取配置文件
  读取Excel数据,我们需要知道对应的行和列,列相对固定,在配置文件settings中定义,然后读取,行作为参数传入。conf/settings文件中的定义如下:
   [excel]
  case_no=0
  case_name=1
  is_run=2
  case_level=3
  case_header=4
  case_cookies=5
  req_type=6
  case_url=7
  case_body=8
  expect_result=9
  operator=10
  actual_result=11
  test_result=12
  在unitls/load_conf.py中编写读取配置的方法,获取各项列值的方法。lood_conf()函数需要传入两个参数:配置项字符串标识符,配置项类型。比如要读取excel下整数case_url:lood_conf("excel.case_url","int")。class excel_config()下定义返回各项列值的方法。
  完整代码如下:
    import  configparser
  '''
  read conf from setting.conf
  @:parameter:identstr,value_type
  value_type:"int" or "str"
  '''
  def lood_conf(identstr,value_type):
  cf = configparser.ConfigParser()
  cf.read("../config/settings.conf")
  idenlist = identstr.split('.')
  if value_type == "int":
  try:
  value = cf.getint(idenlist[0],idenlist[1])
  return  value
  except (configparser.NoSectionError ,configparser.NoOptionError) as e:
  print(e)
  if value_type == "str":
  try:
  value = cf.get(idenlist[0],idenlist[1])
  return value
  except (configparser.NoSectionError ,configparser.NoOptionError) as e:
  print(e)
  '''
  获取url,request body等的列号
  '''
  class excel_config():
  #获取用例编号的列
  def caseno_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.case_no","int")
  def casename_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.case_name","int")
  def isrun_col(self):
  #print(lood_conf("excel.is_run","int"))
  return lood_conf("excel.is_run","int")
  def level_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.case_level","int")
  def header_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.case_header","int")
  def cookies_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.case_cookies","int")
  def reqtype_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.req_type","int")
  def caseurl_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.case_url","int")
  def casebody_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.case_body","int")
  def expectresult_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.expect_result","int")
  def actualresult_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.actual_result","int")
  def testresult_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.test_result","int")
  def test_operator_col(self):
  return lood_conf("excel.operator","int")
  7.1、编写Excel操作类
  unitls/excel_tool.py中定义了获取用例编号,用例名称等方法,需要传入行。回写测试结果,回写实际结果方法需要传入两个参数:行,值。完整代码如下:
   #coding:utf-8
  import xlrd
  from untils.log_trace import *
  from xlutils.copy import copy
  from untils.load_conf import excel_config
  class excel_tool():
  def __init__(self,excel_name):
  self.curr_excel = xlrd.open_workbook(excel_name)
  self.table = self.curr_excel.sheet_by_index(0)
  #print(self.table.cell(1,1).value)
  #实例化excel_config
  self.config = excel_config()
  self.rows = self.table.nrows
  self.excel_name = excel_name
  #获取用例编号
  def get_caseno(self,row):
  caseno = self.table.cell(row,self.config.caseno_col()).value
  if caseno:
  return caseno
  else:
  logging.info("case no is null")
  return None
  #获取用例名称
  def get_casename(self,row):
  casename = self.table.cell(row,self.config.casename_col()).value
  return casename
  #获取是否运行标志
  def get_runflag(self,row):
  run_flag = self.table.cell(row,self.config.isrun_col()).value
  return run_flag
  #获取用例级别
  def get_caselevel(self,row):
  caselevel = self.table.cell(row,self.config.level_col()).value
  return caselevel
  #获取请求url
  def get_caseurl(self,row):
  caseurl = self.table.cell(row,self.config.caseurl_col()).value
  return caseurl
  #获取请求body
  def get_casebody(self,row):
  case_body = self.table.cell(row,self.config.casebody_col()).value
  return case_body
  #获取header
  def get_headerflag(self,row):
  headerflag = self.table.cell(row,self.config.header_col()).value
  return headerflag
  #获取coocikes
  def get_cookiesflag(self,row):
  cookiesflag = self.table.cell(row,self.config.cookies_col()).value
  return cookiesflag
  #获取请求类型
  def get_methodtype(self,row):
  method_type = self.table.cell(row,self.config.reqtype_col()).value
  return method_type
  #获取预期结果
  def get_expectres(self,row):
  expect_res = self.table.cell(row,self.config.expectresult_col()).value
  return expect_res
  #获取测试结果
  def get_testres(self,row):
  test_res= self.table.cell(row,self.config.testresult_col()).value
  return test_res
  #获取操作符
  def get_operator(self,row):
  operator = self.table.cell(row,self.config.test_operator_col()).value
  return operator
  #回写测试结果到excel
  def write_testres(self,row,value):
  wbook = copy(xlrd.open_workbook(self.excel_name))
  sheet = wbook.get_sheet(0)
  sheet.write(row, self.config.testresult_col(), value)
  wbook.save(self.excel_name)
  #回写实际结果
  def write_actualres(self,row,value):
  wbook = copy(xlrd.open_workbook(self.excel_name))
  sheet = wbook.get_sheet(0)
  sheet.write(row, self.config.actualresult_col(), value)
  wbook.save(self.excel_name)  
  8、用例组装
  有了Excel操作类,就可以方便读取数据和回填结果了。接下来,在unitls/run_main.py中来组装用例。组装之前,先获取是否运行的标志:
  运行标志为N,不组装,将用例标记为skiiped,回填测试结果到Excel文件中。
  运行标志为Y,开始组装用例并执行,并对比预期结果和实际结果。
  用例执行通过,将用例标记为pass,回填测试结果和实际结果,实际结果为接口的返回。
  用例执行失败,将用例标记为failed,回填测试结果和实际结果。
  接口鉴权需要用到的headers,先在run_main.py 中写死,这个问题后面解决,在上面的过程中,增加必要的日志,方便定位问题和查看用例的运行日志。完整代码如下:
   #coding:utf-8
  from untils.excel_tool import excel_tool
  from untils.send_request import send_request
  from untils.log_trace import *
  from untils.check_result import CheckResult
  import  json
  headers = {
  "X-Token":"0a6db4e59c7fff2b2b94a297e2e5632e"
  }
  class runner():
  def __init__(self):
  self.excel = excel_tool("../testcase/test.xls")
  self.check = CheckResult()
  def join_case(self):
  global  skip_list,sucess_list,failed_list,skip_list
  sucess_list = []
  sucess_list = []
  failed_list = []
  skip_list = []
  for row in range(1,self.excel.rows):
  no = self.excel.get_caseno(row)
  url = self.excel.get_caseurl(row)
  isrun = self.excel.get_runflag(row)
  name = self.excel.get_casename(row)
  level = self.excel.get_caselevel(row)
  data = self.excel.get_casebody(row)
  expect_res = self.excel.get_expectres(row)
  method = self.excel.get_methodtype(row)
  hasheader = self.excel.get_headerflag(row)
  operator = self.excel.get_operator(row)
  if isrun == "Y":
  logging.info("Begin to run test case : %s,case number :%s" %(name,no))
  logging.info("Request method type is :%s" %method)
  logging.info("Request URL:%s" %url)
  logging.info("Request Body:%s" %json.dumps(json.loads(data),sort_keys=True,indent=2))
  res = send_request(method,url,data=data,headers=headers)
  is_sucess = self.check.cmpdict(eval(expect_res),eval(res.text),operator)
  print(is_sucess)
  if is_sucess:
  sucess_list.append(name)
  #回写测试结果
  self.excel.write_testres(row,"pass")
  #回写实际结果
  self.excel.write_actualres(row,res.text)
  logging.info("Test case %s run sucess." %name)
  else:
  failed_list.append(name)
  print("fail",is_sucess)
  #回写测试结果
  self.excel.write_testres(row,"failed")
  #回写实际结果
  self.excel.write_actualres(row,res.text)
  logging.error("Test case %s run fail." %name)
  logging.info("Response is:%s" %json.dumps(res.json(),sort_keys=True,indent=2))
  else:
  skip_list.append(name)
  self.excel.write_testres(row,"skipped")
  def sum(self):
  total = len(sucess_list)+len(failed_list) + len(skip_list)
  failed = len(failed_list)
  sucess = len(sucess_list)
  logging.info("-----------------------------------------------------------")
  logging.info("本次一共运行:%s 个用例" %total)
  logging.info("本次运行通过:%s 个用例" %sucess)
  logging.info("本次运行跳过:%s 个用例" %len(skip_list))
  logging.info("跳过的用例:%s" %skip_list)
  logging.info("-----------------------------------------------------------")
  9、用例运行结果校验
  在untils/run_main.py中方法cmpdict()是用来校验预期和结果实际结果是否匹配,需要传入三个参数:预期结果字典,实际结果字典,操作符。在check_result.py中编写校验用例结果的方法。目前只支持两种操作符,equal和notequal,预期结果为字典,其中不能嵌套字典。和完整代码如下:
   from untils.log_trace import *
  class  CheckResult():
  def dict_value(self,key,actual):
  try:
  if key in actual:
  return actual[key]
  else:
  for keys in actual:
  return self.dict_value(key,actual[keys])
  except Exception as e:
  logging.error(e)
  return None
  def cmpdict(self,expect,actual,equal):
  logging.info("Begin to check result of  testcase.")
  is_dict = isinstance(expect,dict) and isinstance(actual,dict)
  if is_dict:
  if equal == "equal":
  for key in expect.keys():
  if expect[key] == self.dict_value(key,actual):
  logging.info("%s is equal to %s" %(expect[key],self.dict_value(key,actual)))
  return True
  else:
  logging.error("%s is not equal to %s" %(expect[key],self.dict_value(key,actual)))
  return False
  if equal == "notequal":
  for key in expect.keys():
  if key != self.dict_value(key,actual):
  logging.info("%s is not equal to %s" %(expect[key],self.dict_value(key,actual)))
  return True
  else:
  logging.error("%s is equal to %s" %(expect[key],self.dict_value(key,actual)))
  return False
  else:
  logging.error("Operator :%s is not support now,you can define it in file[check_result.py]" %equal)
  else:
  logging.error("Expect or actual  result is not dict,check it in  excel. ")
  10、运行用例
  新建一个名称为test.xls的Excel,将其放到testcase路径下,并在Excel中编写测试用例。接口开发请参考:使用Django开发简单接口:文章增删改查,我准备的用例如下:
  在untils/untils_test.py中导入run_mian模块来测试一下:
   from untils.run_main import runner
  if __name__ == "__main__":
  #test_send_request()
  runner = runner()
  runner.join_case()
  runner.sum()
  运行untils_test.py,然后去到Excel中查看运行结果:
  report路径下查看测试用例运行日志,如下所示:
   Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO check_result.py [line:16]  Begin to check result of  testcase.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 ERROR check_result.py [line:38]  Operator :e1qual is not support now,you can define it in file[check_result.py]
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:37]  Begin to run test case : 查询文章,case number :1.0
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:38]  Request method type is :GET
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:39]  Request URL:http://127.0.0.1:9000/articles
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:40]  Request Body:{}
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO send_request.py [line:25]  {'X-Token': '0a6db4e59c7fff2b2b94a297e2e5632e'}
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO check_result.py [line:16]  Begin to check result of  testcase.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO check_result.py [line:22]  BS.200 is equal to BS.200
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:52]  Test case 查询文章 run sucess.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:62]  Response is:{
  "all_titles": {
  "Hello": "alive",
  "amy1": "alive",
  "modifytest": "alive",
  "useasge of ddt": "alive"
  },
  "msg": "query articles sucess.",
  "status": "BS.200"
  }
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:37]  Begin to run test case : 新增文章,case number :2.0
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:38]  Request method type is :POST
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:39]  Request URL:http://127.0.0.1:9000/articles/
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:40]  Request Body:{
  "content": "useasge of ddt",
  "title": "useasge of ddt"
  }
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO send_request.py [line:25]  {'X-Token': '0a6db4e59c7fff2b2b94a297e2e5632e'}
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO check_result.py [line:16]  Begin to check result of  testcase.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 ERROR check_result.py [line:25]  BS.200 is not equal to BS.400
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 ERROR run_main.py [line:60]  Test case 新增文章 run fail.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:62]  Response is:{
  "msg": "title aleady exist,fail to publish.",
  "status": "BS.400"
  }
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:37]  Begin to run test case : 修改文章,case number :3.0
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:38]  Request method type is :POST
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:39]  Request URL:http://127.0.0.1:9000/articles/7
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO run_main.py [line:40]  Request Body:{
  "content": "modify test",
  "title": "modify test"
  }
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:56 INFO send_request.py [line:25]  {'X-Token': '0a6db4e59c7fff2b2b94a297e2e5632e'}
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO check_result.py [line:16]  Begin to check result of  testcase.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 ERROR check_result.py [line:25]  BS.200 is not equal to BS.300
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 ERROR run_main.py [line:60]  Test case 修改文章 run fail.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:62]  Response is:{
  "msg": "article is not exists,fail to modify.",
  "status": "BS.300"
  }
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:37]  Begin to run test case : 删除文章,case number :4.0
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:38]  Request method type is :DELETE
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:39]  Request URL:http://127.0.0.1:9000/articles/7
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:40]  Request Body:{}
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO send_request.py [line:25]  {'X-Token': '0a6db4e59c7fff2b2b94a297e2e5632e'}
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO check_result.py [line:16]  Begin to check result of  testcase.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 ERROR check_result.py [line:25]  BS.200 is not equal to BS.300
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 ERROR run_main.py [line:60]  Test case 删除文章 run fail.
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:62]  Response is:{
  "msg": "article is not exists,fail to delete.",
  "status": "BS.300"
  }
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:74]  -----------------------------------------------------------
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:75]  本次一共运行:5 个用例
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:76]  本次运行通过:1 个用例
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:77]  本次运行跳过:1 个用例
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:78]  跳过的用例:['新增文章缺少title']
  Sat, 11 May 2019 19:37:57 INFO run_main.py [line:79]  -----------------------------------------------------------
  11 、小结
  框架终于能跑起来了,但是遗留的问题还很多。
  很多地方的代码不够健壮,这个后面慢慢优化。还有用例校验支持的运算符比较少。
  发送邮件模块待完成。
  Headers的问题如何解决?
  如果请求的body比较多,写在Excel是不是很不美观呀?这个可以从固定地方读取文件来完成。
  Excel中测试用例有没有必填项呀?这个可以在运行结果之前进行校验,必填项缺少,不运行。
  最关键的一点,如果第二个用例依赖于第一个用例的返回,用例依赖一直是个痛点,下一篇解决。
  还有很多问题比如,重试机制,耗时的用例设置超时时间,超时默认为失败等等.......

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