[XPath] XPath 节点

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XPath 术语 (XPath Terminology)
一 节点(Nodes)
In XPath, there are seven kinds of nodes: element, attribute, text, namespace, processing-instruction, comment, and document nodes.
XPath中有7种不同类型的节点:
  • element
  • attribute
  • text
  • namespace
  • processing-instroduction
  • comment
  • document nodes
XML documents are treated as trees of nodes. The topmost element of the tree is called the root element.
XML文档被视为节点树。树的最上层元素被称为根节点。

示例:
XML 文档:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<bookstore>
  <book>
    <title lang="en">Harry Potter</title>
    <author>J K. Rowling</author>
    <year>2005</year>
    <price>29.99</price>
  </book>
</bookstore>

Example of nodes in the XML document above(上面XML文档的节点):
<bookstore> (root element node)根节点
<author>J K. Rowling</author> (element node)元素节点
lang="en" (attribute node)属性节点


二 原子值(Atomic values)
Atomic values are nodes with no children or parent.
原子值:没有孩子节点或父节点的节点。
示例:
上面XML文档中的原子值为:
J K. Rowling
"en"

三 Items (项目??)
Items are atomic values or nodes.

四 节点之间的关系(Relationship of Nodes)
1 Parent (父节点)
Each element and attribute has one parent.
每个元素或属性都有一个父节点。
示例:
<book>
  <title>Harry Potter</title>
  <author>J K. Rowling</author>
  <year>2005</year>
  <price>29.99</price>
</book>

The <book> element is the parent of the <title>, <author>, <year>, and <price>.

2 Children (子节点)
Element nodes may have zero, one or more children.
元素节点可能含有0/1/多个孩子节点。
示例:
the title, author, year, and price elements are all children of the book element.
上面XML文档中,<title>,<author>,<year>,<price>全部都是<book>元素的孩子节点。

3 Siblings (兄弟节点)
Nodes that have the same parent.拥有同一父节点的节点,互称为兄弟节点。
示例:
The title, author, year, and price elements are all siblings.
上面XML文档中,<title>,<author>,<year>,<price>互为兄弟节点。

4 Ancestors(祖先)
A node's parent, parent's parent, etc.
一个节点的父节点,父节点的父节点等。
示例:
XML文档
<bookstore>

<book>
  <title>Harry Potter</title>
  <author>J K. Rowling</author>
  <year>2005</year>
  <price>29.99</price>
</book>

</bookstore>

The ancestors of the title element are the book element and the bookstore element。
节点<title>的祖先有:<book>和<bookstore>。

5 Descendants(后代)
A node's children, children's children, etc.
一个节点的孩子节点,孩子节点的孩子等。
示例:
The descendants of the bookstore element are the book, title, author, year, and price elements.
上述XML文档中,<bookstore>的孩子节点有:<book>,<title>,<author>,<year>,<price>.

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