How software bugs impact our lives


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ln-bes2% df
/                  (/dev/md/dsk/d10   ):31004448 块  5900647 文件
/devices           (/devices          ):       0 块        0 文件
/system/contract   (ctfs              ):       0 块 2147483568 文件
/proc              (proc              ):       0 块    29492 文件
/etc/mnttab        (mnttab            ):       0 块        0 文件
/etc/svc/volatile  (swap              ):86623952 块  4783482 文件
/system/object     (objfs             ):       0 块 2147483430 文件
/dev/fd            (fd                ):       0 块        0 文件
/tmp               (swap              ):86623952 块  4783482 文件
/var/run           (swap              ):86623952 块  4783482 文件
/dev/vx/dmp        (swap              ):86623952 块  4783482 文件
/dev/vx/rdmp       (swap              ):86623952 块  4783482 文件
/data              (/dev/md/dsk/d30   ):13171894 块  8337669 文件
/dev/odm           (/dev/odm          ):       0 块        0 文件
Solaris的文件系统中,有一个/proc文件系统,一些巨大的文件放在那里,/proc文件系统不是普通意义上的文件系统,它是一个到运行中进程地址空间的访问接口。通过/proc,可以用标准Unix系统调用(比如open()、read()、write()、ioctl()等等)访问进程地址空间。事实上,Solaris ps(1)命令正是利用/proc获取进程状态。 Solaris下使用/proc的工具相当完善,位于/usr/proc/bin目录中。这些工具提供了一种访问任意指定进程临界数据的简捷办法。/proc的魅力正是在于它包含了你可能想知道的关于一个进程的任何信息。
pldd -列出进程连接的动态库
pstack -调用栈 
pfiles -打开的文件描述符列表
ptree -进程关系树
ln-bes2% man proc
正在重新格式化页面。请等待... 完成

User Commands                                             proc(1)

     proc, pflags,  pcred,  pldd,  psig,  pstack,  pfiles,  pwdx,
     pstop, prun, pwait, ptime - proc tools

     /usr/bin/pflags [-r] pid | core [/lwp] ...

     /usr/bin/pcred [pid | core] ...

     /usr/bin/pcred [-u user/uid] [-g group/gid]  [-G  grouplist]

     /usr/bin/pcred -l login pid...

     /usr/bin/pldd [-F] [pid | core] ...

     /usr/bin/psig [-n] pid ...

     /usr/bin/pstack [-F] pid | core  [/lwp] ...

     /usr/bin/pfiles [-Fn] pid...

     /usr/bin/pwdx pid...

     /usr/bin/pstop pid...

     /usr/bin/prun pid...

     /usr/bin/pwait [-v] pid...

     /usr/bin/ptime command [arg...]

     The proc tools are utilities that exercise features of /proc
     (see  proc(4)).  Most  of  them  take  a list of process-ids
     (pid).  The tools  that  do  take  process-ids  also  accept
     /proc/nnn  as  a  process-id, so the shell expansion /proc/*
     can be used to specify all processes in the system.

     Some of the proc tools can also be  applied  to  core  files
     (see  core(4)).  The tools that apply to core files accept a
     list of either process IDs or names of core files or both.

     Some of the proc tools can operate  on  individual  threads.
     Users   can  examine  only  selected  threads  by  appending
     /thread-id to the process-id or core. Multiple  threads  can
     be  selected  using  the  -  and  , delimiters.  For example
     /1,2,7-9 examines threads 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9.

     See .

SunOS 5.10          Last change: 11 Oct 2005                    1

User Commands                                             proc(1)

     pflags          Print the /proc tracing flags,  the  pending
                     and  held  signals,  and  other /proc status
                     information for each lwp in each process.

     pcred           Print or  set  the  credentials  (effective,
                     real, saved UIDs and GIDs) of each process.

     pldd            List the dynamic libraries linked into  each
                     process, including shared objects explicitly
                     attached using dlopen(3C).  See also ldd(1).

     psig            List the signal actions and handlers of each
                     process. See signal.h(3HEAD).

     pstack          Print a hex+symbolic stack  trace  for  each
                     lwp in each process.

     pfiles          Report fstat(2) and fcntl(2) information for
                     all open files in each process. In addition,
                     a path to the file is reported if the infor-
                     mation  is  available  from  /proc/pid/path.
                     This is not necessarily the same  name  used
                     to  open  the  file.  See  proc(4)  for more

     pwdx            Print the current working directory of  each

     pstop           Stop each process (PR_REQUESTED stop).

     prun            Set each process running (inverse of pstop).

     pwait           Wait for all of the specified  processes  to

SunOS 5.10          Last change: 11 Oct 2005                    2

User Commands                                             proc(1)

     ptime           Time the command, like  time(1),  but  using
                     microstate  accounting for reproducible pre-
                     cision. Unlike time(1), children of the com-
                     mand are not timed.

     The following options are supported:

     -F       Force. Grabs the target  process  even  if  another
              process has control.

     -n       (psig and pfiles only) Sets non-verbose mode.  psig
              displays   signal  handler  addresses  rather  than
              names. pfiles does not display verbose  information
              for  each  file descrīptor.  Instead, pfiles limits
              its  output  to  the  information  that  would   be
              retrieved  if  the process applied fstat(2) to each
              of its file descrīptors.

     -r       (pflags only) If the process is  stopped,  displays
              its machine registers.

     -v       (pwait only) Verbose. Reports terminations to stan-
              dard output.

     Additionally, pcred supports the following options:

     -g group/gid    Sets the real, effective,  and  saved  group
                     ids  (GIDs)  of  the target processes to the
                     specified value.

     -G grouplist    Sets the supplementary GIDs  of  the  target
                     process to the specified list of groups. The
                     supplementary groups should be specified  as
                     a  comma-separated  list of group names ids.
                     An empty list clears the supplementary group
                     list of the target processes.

SunOS 5.10          Last change: 11 Oct 2005                    3

User Commands                                             proc(1)

     -l login        Sets the real, effective, and saved UIDs  of
                     the  target  processes  to  the  UID  of the
                     specified login. Sets the  real,  effective,
                     and  saved  GIDs  of the target processes to
                     the GID of the  specified  login.  Sets  the
                     supplementary  group  list to the supplemen-
                     tary groups list of the specified login.

     -u user/uid     Sets the real, effective, and saved user ids
                     (UIDs) of the target processes to the speci-
                     fied value.

     In order to set the credentials of another process,  a  pro-
     cess  must  have sufficient privilege to change its user and
     group ids to those specified according to the rules laid out
     in  setuid(2)  and it must have sufficient privilege to con-
     trol the target process.

     These proc tools stop their target processes while  inspect-
     ing  them  and  reporting  the  results:  pfiles,  pldd, and
     pstack. A process can do nothing while it is stopped.  Thus,
     for  example,  if  the X server is inspected by one of these
     proc tools running in a window under the X server's control,
     the  whole  window  system can become deadlocked because the
     proc tool would be attempting to print its results to a win-
     dow  that  cannot be refreshed. Logging in from from another
     system using rlogin(1) and killing the offending  proc  tool
     would clear up the deadlock in this case.

     See .

     Caution should be exercised when using the -F flag. Imposing
     two  controlling processes on one victim process can lead to
     chaos. Safety is assured only  if  the  primary  controlling
     process,  typically  a debugger, has stopped the victim pro-
     cess and the primary controlling process is doing nothing at
     the moment of application of the proc tool in question.

     Some of the proc tools can also be applied to core files, as
     shown  by the synopsis above. A core file is a snapshot of a
     process's state and is produced by the kernel prior to  ter-
     minating a process with a signal or by the gcore(1) utility.
     Some of the proc tools can need to derive the  name  of  the
     executable corresponding to the process which dumped core or
     the names of shared libraries associated with  the  process.
     These files are needed, for example, to provide symbol table
     information for pstack(1). If the proc tool in  question  is

SunOS 5.10          Last change: 11 Oct 2005                    4

User Commands                                             proc(1)

     unable  to  locate  the needed executable or shared library,
     some symbol information is unavailable  for  display.  Simi-
     larly,  if  a core file from one operating system release is
     examined on a different operating system release,  the  run-
     time  link-editor debugging interface (librtld_db) cannot be
     able to initialize. In this  case,  symbol  information  for
     shared libraries is not available.

     The following exit values are returned:

     0                       Successful operation.

     non-zero                An error has occurred.

     /proc/*                 process files

     See attributes(5) for descrīptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWesu                     |
    | Interface Stability         | See below.                  |

     Human Readable Output is Unstable. Options are Evolving.

     gcore(1), ldd(1), pargs(1), pgrep(1),  pkill(1),  plimit(1),
     pmap(1),  preap(1),  ps(1), ptree(1), ppgsz(1), pwd(1), rlo-
     gin(1),  time(1),  truss(1),  wait(1),  fcntl(2),  fstat(2),
     setuid(2),  dlopen(3C),  signal.h(3HEAD),  core(4), proc(4),
     process(4), attributes(5), zones(5)

     The following proc tools stop their target  processes  while
     inspecting them and reporting the results: pfiles, pldd, and

SunOS 5.10          Last change: 11 Oct 2005                    5

User Commands                                             proc(1)

     A process can do nothing while it  is  stopped.  Stopping  a
     heavily used process in a production environment, even for a
     short amount of time, can cause severe bottlenecks and  even
     hangs  of these processes, causing them to be unavailable to
     users. Some databases could also terminate abnormally. Thus,
     for  example,  a database server under heavy load could hang
     when one of the database processes is traced using the above
     mentioned  proc tools. Because of this, stopping a UNIX pro-
     cess in a production environment should be avoided.

     A process being stopped by these tools can be identified  by
     issuing  /usr/bin/ps  -eflL and looking for "T" in the first
     column. Notice that certain processes, for example  "sched",
     can show the "T" status by default most of the time.

SunOS 5.10          Last change: 11 Oct 2005                    6

TAG: Solaris proc other





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